Profitability ratios are a type of financial ratio that investors use to evaluate a company’s ability to generate income profit in relation to its revenue, operating costs, balance sheet assets, and equity shareholders during a specific period of time. These ratios are calculated by comparing a company’s income profit to the company’s revenue, operating costs, and balance sheet assets.

When investors look at these ratios, they may determine how well a firm is utilising its resources to generate profits and value for its owners.

A greater ratio is desirable since it often indicates that the company is doing well by creating profits and cash flow. This is the case when the ratio is higher.

The ratios are helpful in making comparisons between organisations operating in the same industry.

7 of the most common types of profitability ratios:

Rate of Return on Investment:

This ratio is the proportion of net income to the stockholders’ equity, or it may be described as the rate of return on the money that equity investors have invested into the business of the firm. It can also be written as the ratio of net income to total stockholders’ equity.

The return on equity ratio is the ratio that is monitored the most closely by investors since a high ROE indicates a reason to purchase a company’s shares. Companies that have a high ROE are better equipped to generate cash on their own, and as a result, they are less reliant on external sources of loan funding.

The calculation for ROE is as follows: Profit after tax divided by net worth. Whereas the term “net worth” refers to the total of “equity share capital,” “reserve,” and “surplus”

Dividend Per Share:

This profitability ratio illustrates the amount of dividend that is paid out by the firm to its shareholders. The high ratio indicates that there is an excess of cash in the company.

The dividend per share may be calculated using the following formula: Amount Distributed to Shareholders multiplied by the number of Shares outstanding.

The price-to-earnings ratio:

The profitability ratio is utilised by investors in order to determine whether or not the share price of the firm is cheap or overvalued.

This ratio demonstrates not only the anticipated earnings of the firm but also the payback period to the investors.

The Price Earnings Ratio may be computed using the formula: Market Price of Share Earnings per share

The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is an important part of the research process that is used to select stocks for an investor who wants to buy financially stable companies that provide a good return on investment. This ratio allows the investor to determine whether or not they are paying an appropriate price for the stock.

When attempting to assign a value to a firm on the basis of its earnings, one may readily apply this ratio. It is simple for them to determine what sort of stock or firm they are working with based on whether the price-to-earnings ratio is high or low.

those businesses that have a healthy price-earnings ratio As a result of the fact that they point to a prosperous future performance, ratios are categorised as growth stocks.

The rate of return on the invested capital:

This profitability ratio illustrates the return that the firm receives on the capital that the owners have put in the operation of the business.

A better representation of the firm is given by a high Return on Capital Employed ratio, as this suggests that more earnings are made for each rupee of capital that is put to use.

ROCE is calculated using the following formula: Net Operating Profit divided by Capital Employed multiplied by 100.

Capital Employed may be calculated by either using the formula “Total Assets minus Current Liability” or by using the formula “Equity share capital, Reserve and Surplus, Debentures and long-term Loans.”

Calculating ROCE alone is not sufficient, just as calculating any other financial ratio. In addition to ROCE, other profitability ratios such as return on assets, return on invested capital, and return on equity should be utilised when analysing a firm to determine whether or not it is a probable smart investment.

The rate of return on the asset:

Return on assets, or ROA, is a profitability ratio that compares a company’s net earnings to the total value of all its assets. It displays what proportion of the company’s total assets the net earnings represent.

The return on assets (ROA) ratio is a measurement of the asset intensity of a corporation as well as how much profit an organisation generates after taxes for each rupee worth of assets that it owns.

When a corporation makes a smaller profit relative to its total assets, it is said to be more asset-intensive than when it has a higher profit overall. Companies that rely heavily on their assets to generate revenue have to make significant financial expenditures in order to buy new gear and equipment.

The margin of your net profit:

The profitability ratio of a corporation is determined by taking its net income and dividing that number by its total sales. This yields the net profit margin. It provides an indication of how profitable a company is after taking into account all of its costs, such as interest and taxes.

As a measure of profitability, one has to consider the net profit margin because this metric takes everything into consideration. The fact that this ratio takes into account a significant amount of “noise” in the form of one-time costs and gains is the primary downside. As a result, it is more difficult to compare the performance of one firm to that of its rivals.

The margin of operating profit:

The operating profit margin is a profitability ratio that examines earnings as a percentage of sales prior to the deduction of interest expense and income taxes.

Businesses that have higher operating profit margins are better able to pay for fixed costs and interest on obligations; as a result, they have a greater chance of surviving a slowdown in the economy.

The operating profit margin is primarily utilised for the purpose of evaluating the strength of management within the company. This is due to the fact that strong management can increase the profitability of the company by effectively managing the company’s operating costs.

Where can I find out more information about a company’s profitability ratios?

Using StockEdge, the investor can verify that the profitability ratios listed above are met by any company in which they are considering making a long-term investment.

Fundamental scans on StockEdge can identify, from a list of potential investments, only those businesses that have strong financial footing over the long term.


As we have covered in the previous sections, a company’s profitability reflects its overall performance by indicating how much money it has made in the form of profit. It also shows how effectively the owner’s funds have been utilised in the company to generate profits for the owner.


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